- Collaborative Literary Creation and Control – – (hypertext collaboration copyright )
- The Impact of Computer Usage on Academic Performance: Evidence from a Randomized Trial at the United States Military Academy – Disclaimer: The study did not look at students using computers as party of the class. It looked at their presence w/o instruction or direction from instructors. "Average final exam scores among students assigned to classrooms that allowed computers were 18 percent of a standard deviation lower than exam scores of students in classrooms that prohibited computers. Through the use of two separate treatment arms, we uncover evidence that this negative effect occurs in classrooms where laptops and tablets are permitted without restriction and in classrooms where students are only permitted to use tablets that must remain flat on the desk surface." – (classroompractice )
- We Have Personalization Backwards – "But the biggest advantage of a tutor is not that they personalize the task, it’s that they personalize the explanation. " – (de automated_learning )
- Authoring, Audience, Authority: Lessons from Student Contributions to the DRC Wiki – Interesting to see that urbane students have the same issues with wikis and DH concepts as the more parochial students I work with. But why o why ask students to follow wikipedia guidelines of NPOV? Why recreate wikipedia? Write wiki entries from local interests for local interests. – (dh wikis collaborativewriting digital_pedagogy )
- Wiki Wednesday: Revising, Drafting, and Editing with Wikis – Too little has changed in the last five years. – (dh wikis collaborativewriting )
- The Secret History of Hypertext – The Atlantic – History has left out some figures? Who would have expected. The Atlantic is only rediscovering these historical figures of hypertext because the scholars have published books for The Atlantic. – (hypertext historiography webdesign links linking ontology )
- [toread] “Illegible” David Carson cannot *not* communicate (Joe Clark) – – (design typography breaking_the_book )
- Storyspace 3: index to articles – The Eclectic Light Company – Story space is back, and so are tutorials and notes. – (DH Storyspace tinderbox hypertext en3177 )
- The Labyrinth Unbound: Weblogs as Literature, Himmer – – (en3177 blogging )
- E-Portfolios Are Not the Fitbit of Higher Education – I'm forever dubious of e-portfolios, esp as they tend to be forever trumpeted by those who don't use them. Students: get your own domain, keep a blog and a wiki, set your own terms. "e-portfolios come to represent the Fitbits of higher education, then we will have utterly failed our students." – (efolios assessment corporateculture corporatecrawl )
First, a synopsis. Keeping links separate from the content has been a long-standing idea but rarely practiced on the web. As the web came into being, we started to add links to content in such a way that understanding the content becomes dependent on following the links. This is signaled by how we tend to embed links into the syntactic flow of sentences. So in my opening statement, I signal two directions for understanding by linking the phrase latest post about FedWiki. First, you can read on without reading Mike’s post and (probably) will be able to follow what’s coming next. But the link also signals that you’ll want to refer to the post I linked to if you really want to understand what I’m going on about.
Technically, the link is a deixis. It points to something not present that is necessary to complete the meaning or to extend the meaning. In this case, it points to something I don’t own. It’s Mike’s blog post, and it’s worth reading. The issue at hand is how I have embedded it into my own content.
This is the way we have learned to link, the way we have taught people how to link. “Embed those links, gang. Make them follow the sentence, but also write so that readers do not have to follow the links to understand you.” I’ll leave it to you to search for the web writing advice on linking, both hackneyed and sophisticated.
Wrong. As Pound wrote, “Wrong from the start – No, hardly, but, … ” (Hugh Selwyn Mauberley, if you’re interested.)
Mike reminds us, by re-considering Bush and Englebart and Nelson, that we can re-think this idea of linking in the text.
[L]inks as imagined by the heirs of Bush — Engelbart, Nelson, Van Dam — formed a layer of annotation on documents that were by and large a separate entity.
Links as conceived by Bush are separate from the document: annotations, trails, value added, paratextual … By being links, they specify that they lead to other material outside the immediate text, not material that is integral to the text we’re reading. That’s what the link means: this is an annotation, a supplement to what I am offering here.
This doesn’t necessarily make links merely suppplemental. There’s no merely about it – any more than the paratexts of novels or articles are merely extra. But it does place links on an independent layer. I want to explore this idea of independent in more detail some other time, but for now I’ll say that the document can circulate without the links an still be understood. The links add but the document doesn’t depend on them. By the same token, the links can circulate on their own and, very likely, mean something, if not the same thing as they do when circulated with the document. Paratexts.
For all the wonder behind the embedded link as links to sources, as Mike points out, the link doesn’t point to anything the author doesn’t already know. So, while the writer might point to a source, we’re still confined, even in the linked text, to what the author knows rather than bringing in something the author was unaware of, or something the author just doesn’t want to mention.
So you can link your history of the Polaroid ID-2 camera up to suit the engineering people, or to suit the history of corporate boycotts people, but you can’t set it up the links serve both without overlinking the crap out of it.
Upshot: For all the breadth the web and hypertext promises, it is still limited by single authors getting their stuff out there as their single perspective. To develop multiple perspectives in a single documenbt using links to other content would overload the text and send Carr into even more neuro-cognitive apoplexy. For the rest of us, it would just be really really hard to read. (That reference to Carr is an old-fashioned link: an allusion. It serves a rhetorical function in my post, arguing that what I’m talking about is not what Carr is talking about.)
The thing is, we’re not talking about just links here. It’s about the entire system of which the link is only one element.
To recap, even with links, the document will present “only one valid set of relationships, inscribed by the author.” Ok, so now we get to the core:
Federated wiki deals with this issue by keeping links within the document but letting every person have as many copies of that document as they like, with whatever links they want on each. It’s a simple solution but in practice it works quite well.
Think about that a moment. It means one person can fork and consequently work with three or four or howevermany versions of a document. There may be little point in keeping exact copies (but who knows). There may be a big point in keeping an original (as in the sense of the first version to be distributed). But it’s the other versions that make things happen.
I’m not talking extreme differences so much as potential versions of a document that can still be identified as that document.Mike’s version with his annotations. Ward’s version with some of his annotations. My version with some of Mike’s annotations and some of Ward’s, and some of my own. I don’t actually need to maintain three copies. The fedwiki does that. I fork Ward’s or Mike’s version to my fedwiki and adds what I want, move paragraphs around, add other stuff to create my own version. If I need to, I can see who added what. If the new version is going to depart too far from the one in circulation, I start a new document.
Here’s how it might look, and is starting to look:
In the newer style, content is kept fairly short, and fairly link-less. But at the bottom of the articles we annotate by linking to other content with short explanations of each link. … People seeing your links can choose accept or reject them. Good and useful connections can propagate along with the page…. as federated wiki pages move through a system they are improved, and that’s true. But the more common scenario is that as they move through a system they are connected.
As Mike suggests, it’s the federation that makes this style of linking valuable, with links accruing as the article circulates through the neighborhood. The design of the fedwiki page facilitates accrual. Each paragraph is a dragable object, which lets writers create an annotated link that can be placed into the stream of an article at any point. A few fedwiki style guide suggestions also help. Links to external content are created using single brackets, and the fedwiki style guide suggests these links designate the kind of content being linked to (blog, video, academic article). Links to existing fedwiki pages are created with double brackets and the exiting page can be forked to the user’s fedwiki. If the writer changes a page, the page is forked by the system so that a writer starts with a copy – her own copy – that is still connected to the other copies in circulation by way of the flags in the upper left hand corner of the page.
What we develop is a neighborhood.
Fedwiki starts look like a new genre, differentiated from other online text genres such as blogs, listservs, sms exchanges – and the more traditional wiki. The orignal wikis asks visitors to contribute to the common document. Fedwiki asks users to fork what they will and create a variation for their own purposes, as well as contribute to the neighborhood. This also means that using fedwiki involves a different set of social negotiations than traditional wikis. That is the subject for another time.
Fedwiki becomes a genre that operates not using multiple authors to create a common document but a chorus of voices each creating a version. Fedwiki starts to look like the place where those authors do their work.
Chorus stems from chora, and chora [khôra] is a potent term in my field of rhetoric, meaning, variously, the discovery of ideas, the space outside the walls of the city where ideas are born, or as a place of “emerging possibility”. Wikipedia will probably tell you all you want to hear. But if you want the most recent hubbub, try a paper by Michael Souders, “Khôra, invention, deconstruction and the space of complete surprise” [PDF].
- Almost There … Virtually Connecting | Enhancing the virtual event experience – Maha Bali and Rebecca Hogue and a host of others are experimenting with google Hangouts at conferences as a way of connecting the stay-at-homes with the conference attendees. Unscripted, w/o a net. – (DH a&e Hangouts DE )
- Wikifying Annotations – Mike imagines a world where notes and annotations are wikified and hence shareable in Pinboard. How about a link in the Pinboard note to a FedWiki page? Does that work? (http://sfw.mcmorgan.org) Gimme my memex! If we can't have flying cars, least we can have intertwingled tools. – (dh workflow notetaking notes annotation )
- Michael Joyce on early Hypertext Fiction – – (DH hypertext litcrit digital_literature )
- RiTa Gallery – A set of generative prose and imagetexts written using RiTa, an open source procedural language generator. Two reasons to include here: to show how even good poetry can be hijacked in to formula (Exra bot), to suggest that YoU ToO can lEarn to pROGram, and because the collection includes a generative piss-take of Harry Potter at http://robclouth.com/harrypotter/ – (DH procedural_rhetoric generative_prose generative_poetry RITA Processing )
- Why Technology Will Never Fix Education – Commentary – The Chronicle of Higher Education – Please, let this realign admins and IT departments pushing online ed to a reality. Please please please. – (de mooc lms online )
- In Defense of Links, Part One: Nick Carr, hypertext and delinkification — Wordyard – Critique of Carr's assertion about links as distraction. "Links, like words, need to be used judiciously." First part of three posts on significance of links. Followed in 2015 by his Failed Promise of Deep Links. – (hypertext reading web links fedwiki linking )
- The Failed Promise of Deep Links — Backchannel — Medium – "Today, though, Web links are mostly navigation and footnotes. Instead of sharing linked trails of knowledge that we’ve blazed, we leave piles of data around that service providers mine for value." But we can turn it around. – (ia fedwiki hypertext design )
- Silicon Valley Innovation: Stanford Law Student Crowdsources Her Graduation Speech – Wired Campus – Blogs – The Chronicle of Higher Education – Not all that innovative, as commencement speeches tend to be formulaic anyway, and hardly inclusive with only 85 self-selected contributors. it does widen the available means of persuasion, a little. but it perhaps it's a choir preaching to a choir. I used to create a similar effect by grabbing lines of commonplaces from student themes to create an ur-theme that impressed a lot but said little. – (rhetoric hype )
- Adblockers are immoral – No, they aren't. Ad hominem takes on a new meaning. Really, this is your best argument? A good reminder to reinstall that ad blocker you were thinking about. – (advertising rhetoric ad_hominem )
- Audience Invoked vs Audience Addressed in Pinker’s The Sense of Style | David Durian – "Ultimately, it seems the case that, although the text does have mismatch issues between audience invoked and audience imagined, it has still proven to be a successful text, none the less. In terms of its status as "popular linguistics" text, it actually appears to conform pretty strongly to the genre conventions of that genre, at least, if earlier works such as Pinker's The Language Instinct and Tannen's You Just Don't Understand are used as a gauge for success. " – (rhetoric stylebook review linguistics )
- Good Riddance to the Common Core Tests! | Diane Ravitch’s blog – Critisicm is getting out there and getting heard. – (commoncore pedagogy )
- Landow – “Moving beyong the hammer; or why the paradigm is more important than the purchase – – (DH hypertext )
- New Impressions of Africa. hypertext version Hugill trans – – (dh pataphysics hypertext )
- Social Media Influence: 10 Theories to Know For Greater Persuasion – An unpersuasive blip attempting to connect Science! to rhetoric. Ha ha. – (rhetoric marketing )
- Tale of Tales – Realtime Art Manifesto – Read along with The Path. "Auriea Harvey and Michaël Samyn are new media artists who have embraced realtime 3D game technology as their artistic medium of choice. Realtime 3D is the most remarkable new creative technology since oil on canvas. It is much too important to be wasted on computer games alone. This manifesto is a call-to-arms for creative people (including, but not limited to, video game designers and fine artists) to embrace this new medium and start realizing its enormous potential. As well as a set of guidelines that express our own ideas and ideals about using the technology." – (DH digitalaesthetics gaming )
- danah boyd Why Snapchat is Valuable: It’s All About Attention – – (DH digitalliteracy digitalaesthetics )
- Hyperrhiz.06: Essays: A Four-Sided Model for Reading Hypertext Fiction – Four modes of reading are identified and described. These are semantization, exploration, self-reflection and absorption. These modes arise as the reader interacts with textual elements and utilises contextual features. Through the article the modes of reading will be discussed in relation to similar established concepts, such as the four approaches to playing MUDs identified by Richard Bartle (1996), and different attitudes of reading print literature represented in Wolfgang Iser's theory on "die Appellstruktur der Texte" (Iser 1974, 1978), or what he later in his text game theory calls "text game structures" (Iser 1989; 1993). – (DH hypertext WCW reading digitallierature digitalliteracy )